Modern Aspects of the Use of Probiotic and Prebiotic Products in Urological Practice (Literature review)


Pavlo Aksyonov
Volodymyr Spyrydonenko
Maksym Romanyuk


The article discusses probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products, their types, benefits and possibilities of use in urological practice. The effectiveness and safety of use is shown based on the analysis of various clinical studies.

Research results show that probiotics have a potentially positive effect on the host’s body in several different ways: 1) antagonism through the production of antimicrobial substances; 2) competition with pathogens for adhesion to the epithelium and for nutrients; 3) immunomodulation. Thanks to such mechanisms, the intestinal microbiota acts as a barrier to pathogens. Probiotic organisms are critical for maintaining the balance of the human gut microbiota and have high therapeutic potential. Some drugs of the group of probiotics contain only one type of microorganisms of normal microflora, other drugs contain several at once. Depending on the type of microorganisms contained in this or that probiotic, its therapeutic activity and scope of application are determined.

Prebiotics can be used as an alternative to probiotics or as additional support for them. The mechanism of action of the prebiotic includes an effect on the intestinal flora by increasing the number of beneficial anaerobic bacteria and reducing the population of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. The effects of prebiotics include potentiation of the growth of normal intestinal biota, stimulation of mucosal immune mechanisms, and the possibility of influencing non-immune mechanisms through antagonism with potential intestinal pathogens.

The experience of using traditional probiotics, with the introduction of a sufficient amount of a new form of influence on the intestinal microflora – prebiotics, indicates a significant increase in the therapeutic effectiveness of such combinations (prebiotic + probiotic), which as a result increases the chance of complete elimination of the microbial agent, and also accelerates the process of restoring normal intestinal function . Synbiotics are products that contain both probiotics and prebiotics, combining their pharmacological effects.

One of the most well-known pharmacological groups capable of a positive effect on the intestinal biocenosis is natural enterosorbents. The appointment of an enterosorbent in the period after the use of antibiotic therapy in cases of treatment of urological infections should consist in choosing a drug containing a balanced composition of components aimed at sorption, as well as optimizing the growth of normal intestinal biota.

The development of biotherapeutic formulas containing both appropriate microbial strains and synergistic prebiotics can lead to increased therapeutic effect in the treatment of patients with urological pathology.


How to Cite
Aksyonov, P., Spyrydonenko, V., & Romanyuk, M. (2022). Modern Aspects of the Use of Probiotic and Prebiotic Products in Urological Practice (Literature review). Health of Man, (3), 66–71.
Lectures and reviews
Author Biographies

Pavlo Aksyonov, Acad. O. F. Vozianov Institute of Urology of the NAMS of Ukraine

Pavlo V. Aksyonov,

MD, PhD, Department of Sexopathology and Andrology

Volodymyr Spyrydonenko, Acad. O. F. Vozianov Institute of Urology NAMS of Ukraine

Volodymyr V. Spyrydonenko,

MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher at the Department of Sexopathology and Andrology

Maksym Romanyuk, Acad. O. F. Vozianov Institute of Urology NAMS of Ukraine

Maksym G. Romanyuk,

MD, PhD, Department of Sexopathology and Andrology


Gorpinchenko II, Gurzhenko YUM, Spiridonenko VV. Issledovaniye effektivnosti ispolzovaniya preparata Levostad u bolnykh khronicheskim nespetsificheskim prostatitom. Zdorovye muzhchiny. 2015;55(4):37–43.

Savas L, Guvel S, Onlen Y, Savas N, Duran N. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: micro-organisms, antibiotic sensitivities and risk factors. West Indian Med J. 2006;55(3):188–93. doi: 10.1590/s0043-31442006000300011.

Frumkin K. Bacteriology of urinary tract infections in emergency patients aged 0-36 months. J Emerg Med. 2015;48(4):405–15. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.11.004.

Gostishchev VK. Puti i vozmozhnosti profilaktiki infektsionnykh oslozhneniy v khirurgii. Ratsionalnyye podkhody k profilaktike infektsionnykh oslozhneniy v khirurgii: metod rek. Moskva; 1997, p. 2–11.

Sasse A, Mertens R, Siuon IP, Ronveaux O, Bossens M, Mol PDe, et al. Surgical prophylaxis in Belgian hospitals: estimate of costs and potential savings. Antimicrob Chemother. 1998:41:267–72. doi: 10.1093/jac/41.2.267.

Scheel O, Stormark M. National prevalence survey on hospital infections in Norway. J Hosp Infect. 1999:41(4):331–35. doi: 10.1053/jhin.1998.0520.

Polk H, Christmas AB. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery and surgical wound infections. Amer Surg. 2000;66(2):105–11.

Nikitin OD. Rol mikrobnykh bioplenok v patogeneze oslozhnennykh infektsiy mochevykh putey. Zdorovye Muzhchiny. 2015;4(55):20–4.

Bonkat G, Bartoletti R, Bruyère F, Cai T, Geerlings SE, Köves B, et al. S EAU Guidelines on Urological Infections. EAU Annual Congress. Amsterdam: EAU; 2022, 78 p.

Vidannya Zdorovya Ukrainy. Obzor rekomendatsiy Yevropeyskogo obshchestva urologov (EAU) 2014 g. po diagnostike i lecheniyu infektsiy mochevyvodyashchikh putey, assotsiirovannykh s urologicheskimi rasstroystvami [Internet]. Tematichniy nomer Urol, Nefrol, Androl. 2014;1(1). Available from:

Rafalskiy VV, Strachunskiy LS, Krechikova OI, et al. Rezistentnost’ vozbuditeley ambulatornykh infektsiy mochevyvodyashchikh putey po dannym mnogotsentrovykh mikrobiologicheskikh issledovaniy UTIAP-I i UTIAP-II. Urol. 2004;2:1–5.

Vrublevskiy NV, Danilin VN, Didkovskiy VP, Rasputin NV. Preduprezhdeniye narusheniy mikrobiotsenoza kishechnika na fone priyema antibiotikov v gnoynoy khirurgii. Lechashchiy vrach. 2006;10:84–5.

Khavkin AI, Zhikhareva NS. Terapiya antibiotik-assotsiirovannogo disbakterioza. Rus med zhurn. 2006;14(19):3–7.

Fominykh YUA, Pakhomova IG. Antibiotik-assotsiirovannyye sostoyaniya v meditsinskoy praktike: aktualnost problemy, puti resheniya. RMZH. 2012;15:754.

Yermolenko DK, Yermolenko YEI, Isakov VA. Primeneniye prebiotika pri antibiotikoterapii bolnykh s urogenital’nym khlamidiozom. Lechashchiy vrach. 2006;(9):86–7.

Vergin F. Anti-und Probiotica. Hipokrates. 1954;25:116–9.

Lilly DM, Stillwell RH. Probiotics: Growth promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Sci. 1965;147:747–8. doi: 10.1126/science.147.3659.747.

Fuller R. Probiotics in man and animals. J Appl Microbiol. 1989;66(5):365–78.

Guarner F, Schaafsma GJ. Probiotics. Int J Food Microbiol. 1998;39:237–8. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1605(97)00136-0.

Food and Agriculture Organization. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. London, ON, Canada: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Working Group on Drafting Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food; 2002. 11 p.

Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, et al. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;11:506–14. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2014.66.

Markowiak P, Śliżewska K. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health. Nutr. 2017;9(9):1021. doi: 10.3390/nu9091021.

Gibson RG, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 1995;125(6):1401–12. doi: 10.1093/jn/125.6.1401.

Gibson GR, Probert HM, van Loo J, Rastall RA, Roberfroid M. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Updating the concept of the prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev. 2004;17(2):259–75. doi: 10.1079/NRR200479.

Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO Technical Meeting on Prebiotics: Food Quality and Standards Service (AGNS), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) FAO. Rome, Italy: FAO; 2007. 11 p.

Skalkam ML, Wiese M, Nielsen DS, van Zanten G. In Vitro Screening and Evaluation of Synbiotics. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen; 2016, p. 477–86.

Cencic A, Chingwaru W. The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health. Nutr. 2010;2:611–25. doi: 10.3390/nu2060611.

Rioux KP, Madsen KL, Fedorak RN. The role of enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel disease: Human and animal studies with probiotics and prebiotics. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2005;34:465–82. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2005.05.005.

Bengmark S. Bioecological control of the gastrointestinal tract: The role of flora and supplemented probiotics and synbiotics. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2005;34:413–36. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2005.05.002.

Panesar PS, Kaur G, Panesar R, Bera MB. Synbiotics: Potential Dietary Supplements in Functional Foods. IFIS; Berkshire, UK; 2009, p. 58–65.

Vandenbergh PA. Lactic acid bacteria, their metabolic products and interference with microbial growth. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1993;12:221–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.1993.tb00020.x.

Guillot JF. Probiotic feed additives. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2003;26:52–5.

Isolauri E, Sutas Y, Kankaanpaa P, Arvilommi H, Salminen S. Probiotics: Effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:444–50. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2003.10.006.

Brandao RL, Castro IM, Bambirra EA, Amaral SC, Fietto LG, et al. Intracellular signal triggered by cholera toxin in Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applied Environ Microbiol. 1998;64(2):564–8. doi: 10.1128/AEM.64.2.564-568.1998.

Collado MC, Meriluoto J, Salminen S. Interactions between pathogens and lactic acid bacteria: Aggregation and coaggregation abilities. Eur J Food Res Technol. 2007;226:1065–73. doi: 10.1007/s00217-007-0632-x.

MakFarland LV. Meta-analiz probiotykiv dlya profilaktyky diareyi, povyazanoyi z antybiotykamy, i likuvannya zakhvoryuvannya, vyklykanoho Clostridium difficile. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:812–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00465.x.

Van Loo J, Clune Y, Bennett M, Collins JK. The SYNCAN project: Goals, set-up, first results and settings of the human intervention study. Br J Nutr. 2005;93:91–8. doi: 10.1079/bjn20041353.

Gibson GR, Wang X. Regulatory effects of bifidobacteria on the growth of other colonic bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 1994;77:412–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1994.tb03443.x.

Duda AK, Dubrovskiy YEI. Novyye vozmozhnosti v korrektsii disbioza v praktike semeynogo vracha. Semeynaya meditsina. 2014;51(1):96–100.

Dityatkovskaya YEM, Rodkina IA, Gribanova LV, Yevtushenko MA, Bendetskaya YUV. Sovremennyye podkhody k patogeneticheskomu lecheniyu khronicheskoy krapivnitsy. Astma ta alergíya. 2014;(4):60–4.

Protsenko TV, Protsenko OA. Pishchevyye volokna v terapii bolnykh akne i rozatsea. Semeynaya med. 2014)54(4):112–5.