The problem of infertility is relevant to the whole world, that is explaned both by the prevalence (at least 50 million couples on the planet are diagnosed) and by the enormous medical, ecoomic, social and psychological significance. Another important aspect of infertility is the heterogeneity of its causes – about 40% of infertile marriages are caused by the female factor, 35% – male, 20% – a combination of male and female factors and 5% – have no identified factor.
In 2019, the American Collegue of Obstetricians and Gynecologists updated the guidelines for the timing and scope of examinations of infertile couples. In particular, if a woman is 35–40 years old, examination and elimination of the probable factor of infertility should be started after 6 months of non-pregnancy, and in the case of age older than 40 years – immediately after the couple’s accost. The expected tactics should not be used if the patient has oligo- or amenorrhea, known uterine and fallopian tube abnormalities, grade III or IV severity of endometriosis, and the couple has known male infertility factors.
Ovulation disorders as a factor of infertility include hypothalamic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure and hyperprolactinemia, which differ in the content of gonadotropic hormones and ovarian hormones. The adhesion process of the pelvic organs, which restricts the transport of sperm and fertilized egg through the fallopian tubes, is a consequence of endometriosis and inflammatory diseases caused mainly by sexually transmitted pathogens. Endometriosis, in addition to the formation of adhesions in the pelvic cavity, which is characteristic of stage III and IV of the disease, is also a factor in infertility due to elevated concentrations of prostaglandins and proinflammatory cytokines, failed endometrial reciprocity. Among the uterus abnormalities in the violation of fertility are the uterine membrane, leiomyoma with submucosal localization of the node and uterine synechiae.
As part of a comprehensive examination of patients with infertility, it is necessary to take into account the study of thyroid function.
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