DOI: https://doi.org/10.30841/2307-5090.1.2020.205482

Risk Factors for Urolithiasis (Review)

В. А. Слободянюк

Abstract


Urolithiasis is still one of the most urgent problems of modern urology today. The incidence in the world is 5–10 %, with its annual increase. Frequent recurrence of the disease complicates the situation, significantly increasing the duration of disability, and the total number of patients with urolithiasis makes this pathology socially significant, given that in 65–70 % of cases it is diagnosed in the most able-bodied part of the population. There is no clear picture of urolithiasis etiology despite the considerable amount of scientific research in this field. Urolithiasis is considered a multifactorial disease. Molecular genetic studies have been actively pursued for many years to elucidate the relationship of urolithiasis with hereditary factors. To date, the close correlation of genetic disorders with clinical manifestations of urolithiasis has been sufficiently demonstrated. The majority of urolithiasis cases are related to pathologies with hereditary predisposition, but many syndromes with a monogenic inheritance nature are also described. Increasingly, there is a growing body of research in which the risk factors for urolithiasis are serious illnesses such as diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity, metabolic syndrome and more. There is a direct correlation between the incidence of urolithiasis and the degree of obesity in both men and women. The incidence of urinary calculi in patients with obesity is 4 times higher than in patients with normal body mass index. Too high frequency of urate nephrolithiasis was also observed in patients with DM type 2. Certain components of metabolic syndrom correlate with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis.

The purpose of our work was to search, systematize, analyze existing publications regarding the role of various risk factors for the development of urolithiasis. The search for information was conducted using different databases (PubMed, electronic reference database of the National Scientific Library of Kyiv). Analysis of the scientific literature revealed that metabolic imbalance is significantly affected by the development of urolithiasis. Due to the increase in patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, the development of urolithiasis under these conditions becomes an even greater problem and needs further research in terms of the etiology, pathogenesis, as well as serious risk factors in its occurrence. Thorough examination of metabolic disorders, local pathological changes of the urethro-renal complex, possible risk factors depend on the consequences of the disease and the frequency of relapse. The ability to identify risk factors for the formation of concrements will contribute to reducing the incidence of urolithiasis, its prevention and metaphilactic recurrence.


Keywords


urolithiasis; risk factors; genetic abnormalities; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; obesity

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