Salvage radical prostatectomy after distance radiation therapy: a systematic review of modern approaches
Radical external radiation therapy (RERT) is the standard for the treatment of prostate cancer patients (PCa). Despite this, the incidence of intraprostatic recurrence after primary RERT is still significant, there is still no consensus on the best treatment for these patients after ineffective RERT. For such patients, local salvage therapy may be indicated, namely, radical prostatectomy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy.
The objective: analysis of possible criteria for careful selection of relevant patients, assessment of cancer outcomes and complications of each method.
Patients and methods. A review of the literature was carried out to identify studies on local salvage therapy in patients who had an ineffectiveness of primary RERT in localized PCa.
Results. Most studies suggest that local salvage therapy after RERT can provide long-term local control in correctly selected patients, although there is toxicity of treatment.
Conclusion. The results of the study suggest that for localized prostate cancer after external radiation radiotherapy, the choice of the local treatment model should be applied on the basis of an individual approach to each patient. Further research is continuing that it provides the best oncological and comorbid results, in particular by improving the selection criteria and the integral determination of biochemical disorders for all salvage methods.
Full Text:PDF (Українська)
Agarwal PK, Sadetsky N, Konety BR, Resnick MI, Carrol PR: Tratment failure after primary and salvage therapy for prostate cancer: likelehood, patterns of care, and outcomes. Cancer 2008; 112: 307–314.
Bolla M, Van Tienhoven G, Warde P, Dobois JB, Mirimanoff RO, Storme G, Bernier J, Kuten A, Sternberg C, Billiet I, Torecilla JL, Pfeffer R, Cutajar CL, Van der Kwast T, Collette L.: External radiation with or without long-term androgen suppression for prostate cancer withigh metastatic risk: 10-year results of an EORTC: randomiized study. Lancet Oncol 2010;11: 1066–1073.
, Grossfeld GD, Li YP, Lubeck DP, Broering JM, Mehta SS, Carroll PR: Predictors of secondary cancer treatment in patients receiving local therapy for prostate cancer: data from cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavour. J Urol 2002; 168: 530–535.
Parckh A, Gracham PL, Nguyen PL. Cancer control and complications of salvage local therapy after failure of radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review. Semin Radiat Oncol 2013; 23: 222–234.
Roach M lll, Hanks G, Thames H Jr, et al: Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 65: 965–974.
Sengoz M, Abacioglu U, Cetin I, Turkeri L: PSA bouncing after external beam radiation for prostate cancer with or without hormonal treatment. Eur Urol 2003; 43: 473–477.
Zelefsky MJ, Shi W, Yamada Y, Kollmeier MA, Cox B, Park J, Seashan WE. Postradiotherapy 2-year prostate-specific antigen nadir as a predictor of long-term prostate cancer mortality. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 75: 1350–1356.
Stephenson AI, Scardino PT, Bianco FJ Jr, DiBlasio CJ, Fearn PA, Eastham JA: Morbidity and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy for locally reccurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. J Urol 2004; 172: 2239–2243.
de Crevoister R, Slimane K, Messai T, Wibault P, Eschwege F, Bossy A, Koscielny S, Bridier A, Massard C, Fizazi K: Early PSA decrease is an independent predictive factor of clinical failure and specific survival in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy. Ann Oncol 2010; 21: 808–814.
Delouya G, Kaufman G, Sylvestre MP, Nguyen TV, Bahary JP, Taussky D, Despres P: The importence of an exponential prostate-specific antigen decline after external beam radiotherapy for intermediate risk prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol 2012; 36: e137-e141.
D’Amico AV, Chen MH, Reohl KA, Catalona WJ: Identifying patients at risk for significant versus clinically insignificant post-operated prostate-specific antigen failure. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:
Akyol F, Ozyigit G, Selek U, Karabulut E: PSA bouncing after short term androgen deprivation and 3D-conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate adenocarcinoma and the relationship with the kinetics of testosterone. Eur Urol 2005; 48: 40–45.
Pister LL, D’Amico AV: Prostate cancer: salvage local treatment, cours 104 IC. AUA Education and Research Inc. Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2006.
Kim-Sing C, Pickles T; Prostate Cohort Outcomes Initiative: Intervention after PSA failure: examination of intervation time and subsequent outcomes from a prospective patient database. Int
J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004; 60: 463–469.
Crook J, Malone S, Perry G, Bahadur Y, Robertson S, Abdolell M: Postradiotherapy prostate biopsies: what they really mean? Results for 498 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 48: 355–367.
Vance W, Tucker SL, de Crevoisier R, Kuban DA, Cheung MR: The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67: 828–833.
Kaplan DJ, Crispen PL, Greenberg RE, Chen DYT, Viterbo R, Buyyounouski MK, Horwitz EM, Uzzo RG: Residual prostate cancer following radiotherapy: a study of radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. Urology 2008; 72: 654–658.
Leibovici D, Chiong E, Pisters LL, Guo CC, Ward JF, Andino L, Prokhorova IN, Troncoso P: Pathological characteristics of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy: implication for focal salvage therapy. J Urol 2012; 188: 98–102.
Chade DC, Shariat SF, Cronin AM, Savage CJ, Karnes RJ, Blute ML, Briganti A, Montorsi F, van der Poppel H, Joniau S, Godoy G, Hurtado-Coll A, Gleave ME, Dall’Oglio M, Srougi M, Scardino PT, Eastham JA: Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a multi-institutional collaboration. Eur Urol 2011; 60: 205–210.
Kestin LL, Goldstein NS, Vicini FA, Mitchell C, Gustafson GS, Stromberg JS, Chen PY, Martinez A: Pathologic evidence of dose-response and dose-volume relationships for prostate cancer treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 54: 107–118.
Rouviere O, Valette O, Grivolat S, Colin-Pangaud C, Bouvier R, Chapelon JY, Gelet A, Lyonnet D: Recurrent prostate cancer after external beam. Management of biochemical recurrence radiotherapy: value of contrastenhanced dynamic MRI in localizing intraprostatic tumor-correlation with biopsy findings. Urology 2004; 63: 922–927.
Kim CK, Park BK, Lee HM: Prediction of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: incremental value of 3T diffusion-weighted MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 2009; 29: 391–397.
Giannarini G, Petralia G, Thoeny HC: Potential and limitations of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney, prostate, and a bladder cancer including pelvic lymph node staging: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol 2012; 61: 326–340.
Petralia G, Alessi S, Alconchel A, Summers P, Musi G, Matei V, De Cobelli O, Renne G, Bellomi M: Anterior prostate tumors are difficult for diagnose without MRI. Ecancer medical science 2012; 6: 252.
Picchio M, Messa S, Landoni C, Gianolli L, Sironi S, Brioshi M, Matarrese M, Matei DV, De Cobelli F, Del Maschio A, Rocco F, Rigatti P, Fasio F: Value of [11C] choline-positron emission tomographi for re-staging prostate cancer: a comparision with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. J Urol 2003; 169: 1337–1340.
Ceci F, Castellucci P, Graziani T, Schiavina R, Brunocilla E, Mazzarotto R, Ntretta M, Lodi F, Martorana G, Fanti S: 11C Choline PET/CT detects the site of relapse in the majority of prostate cancer patients showing biochemical recurrence after EBRT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2014; 41: 878–886.
Rinnab L, Simon J, Hautmann RE, Cronauer MV, Hohl K, Buck AK, Reske SN, Mottagby FM: [(11)C] choline PET/CT in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. World J Urol 2009; 27: 619–625.
Behesti M, Vali R, Waldenberger P, Fitz F, Nader M, Hammer J, Loidl W, Pirich C, Fogelman I, Langsteger W: The use of F-18 choline PET in the assessment of bone metastasesin prostate cancer: correlation with morphological on CT. Mol Imaging Biol 2010;12: 98–107.
Hautmann RE: Salvage radical prostatectomy (in German). Urologe A 2006; 45: 1260–1265.
Chade DC, Eastham J, Graefen M, Hud JC, Karnes RJ, Klotz L, Montorsi F, van Poppel H, Scardino PT, Shariat SF: Cancer control and functional outcomes of salvage prostatectomy for radiationrecurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol 2012; 61: 961–971.
Gheiler EL, Tefilli MV, Tiguert R, et al: Predictors for maximal outcome in patients undergoing salvage surgery for radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Urology 1998; 51: 789–795.
Stein A, Smith RB, de Kernion JB: Salvage radical prostatectomy after failure of curative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of prostate. Urology 1992; 40: 197–200.
Pontes JE, Montie J, Klein E, Huben R: Salvage surgery for radiation failure in prostate cancer. Cancer 1993; 71: 976–980.
Lerner SE, Blute ML, Zincke H: Critical evaluation of salvage surgery for radio-recurrent /resistant prostate cancer. J Urol 1995; 154: 1103–1109.
Ward JF, Sebo TJ, Blute ML, Zincke H: Salvage surgery for radiorecurrent prostate cancer: contemporary outcomes. J Urol 2005; 173: 1156–1160.
Amling CL, Lerner SF, Martin SK, Slezak JM, Blute ML, Zincke H: Deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy and serum prostate specific antigen predict outcomes following salvage prostatectomy for radiation refractory prostate cancer. J Urol 1999; 161: 857-862; discussion 862–863.
Bianco FJ, Scardino PT, Stephenson AJ, Diblasio CJ, Fearn PA, Eastham JA: Long-term oncologic results of salvage radical prostatectomy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 62: 448–453.
Heidenreich A, Ohlmann C, Ozgur E, Engelmann U: Functional and oncological outcome of salvage prostatectomy of locally recurrent prostate cancer following radiation therapy (in German). Urologe A 2006; 45: 474–481.
Scabra D, Farta E, Dauster B, Rodrigues G, Fava G: Critical analysis of salvage radical prostatectomy in the management of radioresistant prostate cancer. Int Braz J Urol 2009; 35: 43–48.
Leonardo C, Simone G, Papalia R, Franco G, Guaglianone S, Gallucci M: Salvage radical prostatectomy for recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. Int J Urol 2009; 16: 584–586.
Paparel P, Cronin AM, Savage C, Scardino PT, Eastham JA: Oncologic outcome and patterns of recurrence after salvage radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol 2009; 55: 404–411.
Eandy JA, Link BA, Nelson RA, et al: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic salvage prostatectomy for radiation resistant prostate cancer. J Urol 2010, 183; 133–137.
Rogers E, Ohori M, Kassabian VS, Wheeler TM, Scardino PT: Salvage radical prostatectomy: outcome measured by serum prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol 1995; 153: 104–110.
Sanderson KM, Penson DF, Cat J, et al: Salvage radical prostatectomy: guality of life outcomes and long-term oncological control of radiorecurrent prostate cancer. J Urol 2006; 176; 2025-2031; discussion 2031–2032.
Heidenreich A, Richters S, Thuer D, Phister D: Prognostic parameters, complications, and oncologic and functional outcome of salvage radical prostatectomy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after 21st-century radiotherapy. Eur Urol 2010; 57: 437–445.
Zugor V, Labanaris AP, Porres D, Heidenreich A, Witt JH: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for the treatment of radiation-resistant prostate cancer: surgical, oncological and short-term functional outcomes. Urol Int 2014; 92: 20–26.
Cheng L, Sebo TJ, Slezak J, et al: Predictors of survival for prostate carcinoma patients treated with salvage radical prostatectomy after radiation therapy. Cancer 1998; 83: 2164–2171.
Link P, Freiha FS: Radical prostatectomy after definitive radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Urology 1991; 37: 189–192.
Neerhut GJ, Wheeler T, Cantini M, Scardino PT: Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiorecurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 1988; 140: 544–549.
Zincke H: Radical prostatectomy and exenterative procedures for local failure after radiotherapy with curative intent: comparision of outcomes. J Urol 1992; 147: 894–899.
Ahlering TE, Lieskovsky G, Skiner DG: Salvage surgery plus androgen deprivation for radioresistant prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Urol 1992; 147; 900–902.
Brenner PC, Russo P, Wood DP, Morse MJ, Donat SM, Fair WR: Salvage radical prostatectomy in the management of locally recurrent prostate cancer after 125 implantation. Br J Urol 1995; 75: 44–47.
Garzotto M, Wajsman Z: Androgen deprivation with salvage surgery for radiorecurrent prostate cancer: results at 5-year followup. J Urol 1998; 159: 950–954; discussion 954–955.
Darras J, Joniau S, Van Poppel H: Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer: indications and results. Eur J Surg Oncol 2006; 32: 964–969.
Boris RS, Bhandari A, Krane LS, Eun D, Kaul S, Peabody JO: Salvage robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: initial results and early report of outcomes. BJU Int 2009; 103: 952–956.
Copyright (c) 2020 С. В. Головко, О. Ф. Савицький
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
ISSN 2412-5547 (Online), ISSN 2307-5090 (Print)